GraphQL is not just a query language, it’s a paradigm shift in how we think about APIs and data management


So back in 2012, Facebook was having trouble with their mobile app. It was slow and didn’t work well on weak internet connections. They were using a type of technology called REST API, but it wasn’t working well for them.

So they came up with a new idea called GraphQL. It’s a special way of asking for information from a server. Instead of getting a bunch of information all at once, GraphQL lets the app ask for only the specific information it needs at that moment. This makes the app faster and more efficient, especially on weak internet connections.

Think of it like asking a waiter for your order at a restaurant. Instead of getting a whole menu, you can just ask for the specific food you want to eat right now. This way, you don’t waste time looking at things you don’t want, and the waiter can bring you your food faster!

A simple fetch query in GraphQL

here is another example :

Query example with comment

As you can see, the above query and the result have the same form. Using GraphQL queries enables the server to know what the client has asked for. It also returns only the fields specifically requested.

How does GraphQL work?

Behind GraphQL.

With GraphQL, you don’t need to know all the technical details about how the different sources work or where the data is stored. You just tell GraphQL what you want, and it figures out how to get it for you.

To help make this process easier, GraphQL uses something called Schema Definition Language (SDL). SDL is like a map that tells GraphQL where to find the information you want. By using SDL, GraphQL knows exactly what you’re looking for and can give you just the data you need, making your app faster and more efficient.

Why is GraphQL replacing Rest API ?

Improved efficiency

Increased Efficiency: With REST APIs, clients receive all the data defined by the server, even if they don’t need all of it. In contrast, GraphQL allows clients to request only the data they need, making the application more efficient and reducing the amount of data transferred over the network.

Reduced over-fetching and under-fetching

By specifying exactly what data is needed, GraphQL reduces the problem of over-fetching (receiving more data than necessary) and under-fetching (not receiving enough data to fully populate the client).

Increased flexibility

With GraphQL, clients can request multiple resources in a single request, and the server can respond with the exact data the client needs, regardless of where it is stored.

Better developer experience

The GraphQL API is strongly typed, meaning that developers can easily understand and interact with the API using tools like GraphQL playgrounds and code editors.

Simplified versioning

Because clients can specify the exact data they need, changes to the API schema can be made without breaking existing clients.

 A built in playground/UI to explore and invoke the API

GraphQl’s native visual playground

As you can see above even before designing and implementing their user interfaces, front-end engineers can explore and test the backend APIs they need using this interface: A very powerful collaboration mechanism for the team.

Querying dataURL-based queries and parametersSchema-based queries and fields
Response formatPre-defined data structuresDynamic response based on query
Request flexibilityLimited to pre-defined endpointsFlexible, can request any data
Over-fetchingCan return more data than neededRequests only needed data
Under-fetchingMay require multiple requestsCan retrieve multiple resources
VersioningMay require versioning of endpoints
Can add fields without breaking clients
Client-side complexityMay require multiple API calls and data filteringCan simplify client requests and data retrieval
CachingCan be easily cached using HTTP cachingRequires a custom caching layer
Real-time updatesRequires polling or WebSockets
Supports real-time updates via subscriptions
A featureful comparison between Rest and GraphQL.

Overall, GraphQL can help reduce complexity and improve efficiency in building and consuming APIs, making it a powerful tool for modern application development.


In conclusion, GraphQL is a query language and runtime API that has gained popularity in recent years due to its advantages over traditional REST APIs.

As a result, GraphQL has become a preferred method for building APIs, especially for applications with complex data requirements, mobile applications, and microservices architectures. While REST APIs are still widely used, it’s clear that GraphQL offers a more flexible, efficient, and developer-friendly alternative that is quickly gaining traction in the software development community.

Here are some links to help you getting started and get a deeper insight on GraphQl (Official documentation) (Deeper dive on tooling, environment, security etc Frontend/backend)

React Query vs SWR: The basics

 In the world of front-end development, there are a lot of debates around different technologies and how they should be used. One such debate is around data fetching libraries for React. The two most popular options are React Query and SWR. Both React Query and SWR are libraries that were created to help with data fetching in React applications. React Query is a library for fetching, caching, and managing data in React applications. It includes features like query caching, deduplication, request cancellation, and pagination. React Query is heavily inspired by Relay and Apollo Client. SWR is a library for efficiently fetching data from an API. It includes features like caching, deduplication, and pagination. SWR is heavily inspired by various Reddit clients (like Apollo).

So what’s the difference between these two libraries? Let’s take a closer look…


Both React Query and SWR support caching out of the box. However, where they differ is in the granularity of their caching implementations. React Query lets you fine-tune your caching so that you can cache at the component level, whereas with SWR you cache at the route level. This means that if you’re using SWR and you have a page with multiple routes, each route will have its own separate cache. This can lead to duplicated requests if you’re not careful.


React Query and SWR both support deduplication out of the box. Deduplication ensures that if you make the same request multiple times, only a single network request will be made. This can be useful if you have a component that makes multiple requests on mount (for example, if it fetches data from multiple API endpoints). By default, both libraries will use a short time window (5 seconds for React Query and 1 second for SWR) to deduplicate requests.

Request Cancellation:

React Query supports request cancellation out of the box. This means that if you make a request and then unmount the component before the response comes back, React Query will automatically cancel the request so that you don’t end up with stale data in your UI. With SWR, there is no built-in support for request cancellation—however, there is an open issue for it on GitHub.


Both React Query and SWR support pagination out of the box. They each have their own APIs for pagination which are very similar. The main difference is that with React Query you need to specify which page of results you want when making your initial query (for example, page 1 or page 2), whereas with SWR there is an API for automatically fetching the next page of results when necessary.

React Query vs SWR: Features

One of the biggest differences between React Query and SWR is the features each library offers. React Query provides features like automatic retries, refetch on interval, caching/suspense integration, cancelation tokens, global state management, SSR support, and more. SWR, on the other hand, focuses mainly on providing hooks for remote data fetching. While it does offer some caching features, they are not as robust as those offered by React Query.

React Query vs SWR:Performance

When it comes to performance, both React Query and SWR are fast and effective at fetching data from APIs. However, where they differ is in how they handle re-rendering components. With React Query, components will only re-render when the data that they need has been fetched (or if an error has occurred). With SWR, components will always re-render when new data is fetched from the API— even if the component doesn’t need to use that data. This can lead to unnecessary re-renders and lower performance in some cases.

React query vs SWR: Ease of use

When it comes to ease of use, there is a slight learning curve with both libraries. However, once you get familiar with the basics of each library they are both fairly easy to use. In terms of documentation, React query has more comprehensive documentation than does SRW.  docsthat walks you through all of the steps necessary to get started with the library.  On the other hand, while  SRW’s documentation is not as comprehensive as that of  React query , it does provide helpful examples that can be used to get started with the library quickly .  At the end of the day , both libraries are easy enough to use once you get familiar with them .  However ,  React query’s comprehensive documentation may make it slightly easier for newcomers to get started .   Whichever librarie you choose to proceed with, making sure you refer to the official documentation frequently is key so that you don’t run into any issues.    

React Query vs SWR: The Pros and Cons

React Query:






How to Use React Query?


Using React Query is relatively simple. First, you need to install it into your project using either NPM or Yarn. Then, you can create a new instance of ReactQuery in your component:


React Query is optimized for modern browsers. It is compatible with the following browsers config

Code Example:

This code snippet very briefly illustrates the 3 core concepts of React Query:

How to use SWR?


Inside your React project directory, run the following:

Code Example:

For normal RESTful APIs with JSON data, first you need to create a fetcher function, which is just a wrapper of the native fetch:

Then you can import useSWR and start using it inside any function components:


In conclusion, there are two popular libraries for data fetching in React: React Query and SWR. They take different approaches to data fetching, but both libraries include features like caching, deduplication, and pagination out of the box. So which one should you use? It depends on your project requirements. If you need fine-tuned control over your caching implementation or if you need built-in support for request cancellation, then React Query might be a better fit for your project. However, if you’re looking for a simpler API or automatic pagination support, then SWR might be a better choice.


What is GraphQL

A Spec that describes a declarative query language that your client can use to ask an API for the exact data they need. and it’s done by creating a strongly typed schema for your API.

It provides ultimate flexibility in how your API can resolve data and client queries validated against your schema.

The Problems that are solved by GraphQL for An API Developer at the Server Side Are :

The GraphQL Solving the following problems :

What Is Over-Fetching :

In REST API unlike GraphQL We have to pass the GET request to multiple endpoints to get the data that we need. and it’s a fixed data structure that returns more files of data than the data that we exactly need.

Source –

As you can see above to fetch the user’s Id and User post and followers of that particular user we have to reach multiple endpoints to get the required data and we are facing the issue of over-fetching by receiving data that we do not even need.

Source –

with GraphQL since it’s a single endpoint we can retrieve the exact data that we need. That is why GraphQL is very effective when fetching data. Notice that even though the structure of the data has more fields its will only return according to the query request from a client-side.


Under-Fetching generally means that the specific endpoint didn’t provide the sufficient data that we need and again we have to reach out to more endpoints in order to get the required data.

Various Building Blocks that we should know in order to develop a GraphQL API

As I mentioned earlier it’s a strongly typed language and it is important to define the data type for each field.

A Query type on a schema that defines operations where clients can perform to access data that resembles the shape of the other type in schema. and it defines how clients can access data.

It is a function that is responsible for returning values for fields that exist on types in a scheme. and resolvers execution depends on the incoming client query.

A Mutation is used to Create, Delete, and Modify the data.

It combines more than one API to compose it in a single GraphQL Umbrella.

A schema that contains a type definition, resolvers, query definition, and mutation definition. A scheme is defined using Schema Definition Language (SDL). And programmatically creating a schema using language construct.

Where does the GraphQL Fit in :

Introduction to Apollo Server

Apollo Server is an open-source tool that allows connecting with any kind of GraphQL client to develop GraphQL API. and its self-documented which means it provides basic information about schema types and fields suggestions which is very helpful while developing queries for a client including Apollo Client.

We can use Apollo Server as :

Enough for theory let’s get our hands dirty with implementing it.

Environment Setup

To create a GraphQL API with apollo server we need to install the required packages from npm follow the steps given below

After that create a javascript file and import the GrapgQL package called “graphql-tag” and “ApolloServer” from the apollo-server package. and define a typedef and the query and types. as shown below

Not that all the types and queries must be enclosed within the template literals followed by the graphql-tag.

The next step is to create resolvers for the query. and the query field name should be the same as the query field name. and it should return the object of data requested from the query.

After that, we have to pass the type definition and resolver to the ApolloServer as a parameter and then provide a specific port to listen.

Now run the js file and you should see the apollo server on the browser and then we can perform the query request as a client to get a required data

once you execute it successfully you will be seeing the page as shown in the above image You should click Query your server button and then you will be redirected to the apollo server studio where you can play around with your GraphQL API.

As you can see you can retrieve specific data that we need.